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Perl Documentation

NAME

perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable

SYNOPSIS

tie VARIABLE, CLASSNAME, LIST
$object = tied VARIABLE
untie VARIABLE

DESCRIPTION

Prior to release 5.0 of Perl, a programmer could use dbmopen() to connect an on-disk database in the standard Unix dbm(3x) format magically to a %HASH in their program. However, their Perl was either built with one particular dbm library or another, but not both, and you couldn't extend this mechanism to other packages or types of variables.

Now you can.

The tie() function binds a variable to a class (package) that will provide the implementation for access methods for that variable. Once this magic has been performed, accessing a tied variable automatically triggers method calls in the proper class. The complexity of the class is hidden behind magic methods calls. The method names are in ALL CAPS, which is a convention that Perl uses to indicate that they're called implicitly rather than explicitly--just like the BEGIN() and END() functions.

In the tie() call, VARIABLE is the name of the variable to be enchanted. CLASSNAME is the name of a class implementing objects of the correct type. Any additional arguments in the LIST are passed to the appropriate constructor method for that class--meaning TIESCALAR(), TIEARRAY(), TIEHASH(), or TIEHANDLE(). (Typically these are arguments such as might be passed to the dbminit() function of C.) The object returned by the "new" method is also returned by the tie() function, which would be useful if you wanted to access other methods in CLASSNAME. (You don't actually have to return a reference to a right "type" (e.g., HASH or CLASSNAME) so long as it's a properly blessed object.) You can also retrieve a reference to the underlying object using the tied() function.

Unlike dbmopen(), the tie() function will not use or require a module for you--you need to do that explicitly yourself.

Tying Scalars

A class implementing a tied scalar should define the following methods: TIESCALAR, FETCH, STORE, and possibly UNTIE and/or DESTROY.

Let's look at each in turn, using as an example a tie class for scalars that allows the user to do something like:

tie $his_speed, 'Nice', getppid();
tie $my_speed,  'Nice', $$;

And now whenever either of those variables is accessed, its current system priority is retrieved and returned. If those variables are set, then the process's priority is changed!

We'll use Jarkko Hietaniemi <jhi@iki.fi>'s BSD::Resource class (not included) to access the PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_MIN, and PRIO_MAX constants from your system, as well as the getpriority() and setpriority() system calls. Here's the preamble of the class.

package Nice;
use Carp;
use BSD::Resource;
use strict;
$Nice::DEBUG = 0 unless defined $Nice::DEBUG;

That's about all there is to it. Actually, it's more than all there is to it, because we've done a few nice things here for the sake of completeness, robustness, and general aesthetics. Simpler TIESCALAR classes are certainly possible.

Tying Arrays

A class implementing a tied ordinary array should define the following methods: TIEARRAY, FETCH, STORE, FETCHSIZE, STORESIZE, CLEAR and perhaps UNTIE and/or DESTROY.

FETCHSIZE and STORESIZE are used to provide $#array and equivalent scalar(@array) access.

The methods POP, PUSH, SHIFT, UNSHIFT, SPLICE, DELETE, and EXISTS are required if the perl operator with the corresponding (but lowercase) name is to operate on the tied array. The Tie::Array class can be used as a base class to implement the first five of these in terms of the basic methods above. The default implementations of DELETE and EXISTS in Tie::Array simply croak.

In addition EXTEND will be called when perl would have pre-extended allocation in a real array.

For this discussion, we'll implement an array whose elements are a fixed size at creation. If you try to create an element larger than the fixed size, you'll take an exception. For example:

use FixedElem_Array;
tie @array, 'FixedElem_Array', 3;
$array[0] = 'cat';  # ok.
$array[1] = 'dogs'; # exception, length('dogs') > 3.

The preamble code for the class is as follows:

package FixedElem_Array;
use Carp;
use strict;

Tying Hashes

Hashes were the first Perl data type to be tied (see dbmopen()). A class implementing a tied hash should define the following methods: TIEHASH is the constructor. FETCH and STORE access the key and value pairs. EXISTS reports whether a key is present in the hash, and DELETE deletes one. CLEAR empties the hash by deleting all the key and value pairs. FIRSTKEY and NEXTKEY implement the keys() and each() functions to iterate over all the keys. SCALAR is triggered when the tied hash is evaluated in scalar context. UNTIE is called when untie happens, and DESTROY is called when the tied variable is garbage collected.

If this seems like a lot, then feel free to inherit from merely the standard Tie::StdHash module for most of your methods, redefining only the interesting ones. See Tie::Hash for details.

Remember that Perl distinguishes between a key not existing in the hash, and the key existing in the hash but having a corresponding value of undef. The two possibilities can be tested with the exists() and defined() functions.

Here's an example of a somewhat interesting tied hash class: it gives you a hash representing a particular user's dot files. You index into the hash with the name of the file (minus the dot) and you get back that dot file's contents. For example:

use DotFiles;
tie %dot, 'DotFiles';
if ( $dot{profile} =~ /MANPATH/ ||
     $dot{login}   =~ /MANPATH/ ||
     $dot{cshrc}   =~ /MANPATH/    )
{
	print "you seem to set your MANPATH\n";
}

Or here's another sample of using our tied class:

tie %him, 'DotFiles', 'daemon';
foreach $f ( keys %him ) {
	printf "daemon dot file %s is size %d\n",
	    $f, length $him{$f};
}

In our tied hash DotFiles example, we use a regular hash for the object containing several important fields, of which only the {LIST} field will be what the user thinks of as the real hash.

Here's the start of Dotfiles.pm:

package DotFiles;
use Carp;
sub whowasi { (caller(1))[3] . '()' }
my $DEBUG = 0;
sub debug { $DEBUG = @_ ? shift : 1 }

For our example, we want to be able to emit debugging info to help in tracing during development. We keep also one convenience function around internally to help print out warnings; whowasi() returns the function name that calls it.

Here are the methods for the DotFiles tied hash.

Note that functions such as keys() and values() may return huge lists when used on large objects, like DBM files. You may prefer to use the each() function to iterate over such. Example:

# print out history file offsets
use NDBM_File;
tie(%HIST, 'NDBM_File', '/usr/lib/news/history', 1, 0);
while (($key,$val) = each %HIST) {
    print $key, ' = ', unpack('L',$val), "\n";
}
untie(%HIST);

Tying FileHandles

This is partially implemented now.

A class implementing a tied filehandle should define the following methods: TIEHANDLE, at least one of PRINT, PRINTF, WRITE, READLINE, GETC, READ, and possibly CLOSE, UNTIE and DESTROY. The class can also provide: BINMODE, OPEN, EOF, FILENO, SEEK, TELL - if the corresponding perl operators are used on the handle.

When STDERR is tied, its PRINT method will be called to issue warnings and error messages. This feature is temporarily disabled during the call, which means you can use warn() inside PRINT without starting a recursive loop. And just like __WARN__ and __DIE__ handlers, STDERR's PRINT method may be called to report parser errors, so the caveats mentioned under "%SIG" in perlvar apply.

All of this is especially useful when perl is embedded in some other program, where output to STDOUT and STDERR may have to be redirected in some special way. See nvi and the Apache module for examples.

When tying a handle, the first argument to tie should begin with an asterisk. So, if you are tying STDOUT, use *STDOUT. If you have assigned it to a scalar variable, say $handle, use *$handle. tie $handle ties the scalar variable $handle, not the handle inside it.

In our example we're going to create a shouting handle.

package Shout;

Here's how to use our little example:

tie(*FOO,'Shout');
print FOO "hello\n";
$a = 4; $b = 6;
print FOO $a, " plus ", $b, " equals ", $a + $b, "\n";
print <FOO>;

UNTIE this

You can define for all tie types an UNTIE method that will be called at untie(). See "The untie Gotcha" below.

The untie Gotcha

If you intend making use of the object returned from either tie() or tied(), and if the tie's target class defines a destructor, there is a subtle gotcha you must guard against.

As setup, consider this (admittedly rather contrived) example of a tie; all it does is use a file to keep a log of the values assigned to a scalar.

package Remember;
use strict;
use warnings;
use IO::File;
sub TIESCALAR {
    my $class = shift;
    my $filename = shift;
    my $handle = IO::File->new( "> $filename" )
                     or die "Cannot open $filename: $!\n";
    print $handle "The Start\n";
    bless {FH => $handle, Value => 0}, $class;
}
sub FETCH {
    my $self = shift;
    return $self->{Value};
}
sub STORE {
    my $self = shift;
    my $value = shift;
    my $handle = $self->{FH};
    print $handle "$value\n";
    $self->{Value} = $value;
}
sub DESTROY {
    my $self = shift;
    my $handle = $self->{FH};
    print $handle "The End\n";
    close $handle;
}
1;

Here is an example that makes use of this tie:

use strict;
use Remember;
my $fred;
tie $fred, 'Remember', 'myfile.txt';
$fred = 1;
$fred = 4;
$fred = 5;
untie $fred;
system "cat myfile.txt";

This is the output when it is executed:

The Start
1
4
5
The End

So far so good. Those of you who have been paying attention will have spotted that the tied object hasn't been used so far. So lets add an extra method to the Remember class to allow comments to be included in the file; say, something like this:

sub comment {
    my $self = shift;
    my $text = shift;
    my $handle = $self->{FH};
    print $handle $text, "\n";
}

And here is the previous example modified to use the comment method (which requires the tied object):

use strict;
use Remember;
my ($fred, $x);
$x = tie $fred, 'Remember', 'myfile.txt';
$fred = 1;
$fred = 4;
comment $x "changing...";
$fred = 5;
untie $fred;
system "cat myfile.txt";

When this code is executed there is no output. Here's why:

When a variable is tied, it is associated with the object which is the return value of the TIESCALAR, TIEARRAY, or TIEHASH function. This object normally has only one reference, namely, the implicit reference from the tied variable. When untie() is called, that reference is destroyed. Then, as in the first example above, the object's destructor (DESTROY) is called, which is normal for objects that have no more valid references; and thus the file is closed.

In the second example, however, we have stored another reference to the tied object in $x. That means that when untie() gets called there will still be a valid reference to the object in existence, so the destructor is not called at that time, and thus the file is not closed. The reason there is no output is because the file buffers have not been flushed to disk.

Now that you know what the problem is, what can you do to avoid it? Prior to the introduction of the optional UNTIE method the only way was the good old -w flag. Which will spot any instances where you call untie() and there are still valid references to the tied object. If the second script above this near the top use warnings 'untie' or was run with the -w flag, Perl prints this warning message:

untie attempted while 1 inner references still exist

To get the script to work properly and silence the warning make sure there are no valid references to the tied object before untie() is called:

undef $x;
untie $fred;

Now that UNTIE exists the class designer can decide which parts of the class functionality are really associated with untie and which with the object being destroyed. What makes sense for a given class depends on whether the inner references are being kept so that non-tie-related methods can be called on the object. But in most cases it probably makes sense to move the functionality that would have been in DESTROY to the UNTIE method.

If the UNTIE method exists then the warning above does not occur. Instead the UNTIE method is passed the count of "extra" references and can issue its own warning if appropriate. e.g. to replicate the no UNTIE case this method can be used:

sub UNTIE
{
 my ($obj,$count) = @_;
 carp "untie attempted while $count inner references still exist"
                                                             if $count;
}

SEE ALSO

See DB_File or Config for some interesting tie() implementations. A good starting point for many tie() implementations is with one of the modules Tie::Scalar, Tie::Array, Tie::Hash, or Tie::Handle.

BUGS

The bucket usage information provided by scalar(%hash) is not available. What this means is that using %tied_hash in boolean context doesn't work right (currently this always tests false, regardless of whether the hash is empty or hash elements).

Localizing tied arrays or hashes does not work. After exiting the scope the arrays or the hashes are not restored.

Counting the number of entries in a hash via scalar(keys(%hash)) or scalar(values(%hash)) is inefficient since it needs to iterate through all the entries with FIRSTKEY/NEXTKEY.

Tied hash/array slices cause multiple FETCH/STORE pairs, there are no tie methods for slice operations.

You cannot easily tie a multilevel data structure (such as a hash of hashes) to a dbm file. The first problem is that all but GDBM and Berkeley DB have size limitations, but beyond that, you also have problems with how references are to be represented on disk. One module that does attempt to address this need is DBM::Deep. Check your nearest CPAN site as described in perlmodlib for source code. Note that despite its name, DBM::Deep does not use dbm. Another earlier attempt at solving the problem is MLDBM, which is also available on the CPAN, but which has some fairly serious limitations.

Tied filehandles are still incomplete. sysopen(), truncate(), flock(), fcntl(), stat() and -X can't currently be trapped.

AUTHOR

Tom Christiansen

TIEHANDLE by Sven Verdoolaege <skimo@dns.ufsia.ac.be> and Doug MacEachern <dougm@osf.org>

UNTIE by Nick Ing-Simmons <nick@ing-simmons.net>

SCALAR by Tassilo von Parseval <tassilo.von.parseval@rwth-aachen.de>

Tying Arrays by Casey West <casey@geeknest.com>