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Perl Documentation

NAME

threads::shared - Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads

VERSION

This document describes threads::shared version 1.51

SYNOPSIS

use threads;
use threads::shared;
my $var :shared;
my %hsh :shared;
my @ary :shared;
my ($scalar, @array, %hash);
share($scalar);
share(@array);
share(%hash);
$var = $scalar_value;
$var = $shared_ref_value;
$var = shared_clone($non_shared_ref_value);
$var = shared_clone({'foo' => [qw/foo bar baz/]});
$hsh{'foo'} = $scalar_value;
$hsh{'bar'} = $shared_ref_value;
$hsh{'baz'} = shared_clone($non_shared_ref_value);
$hsh{'quz'} = shared_clone([1..3]);
$ary[0] = $scalar_value;
$ary[1] = $shared_ref_value;
$ary[2] = shared_clone($non_shared_ref_value);
$ary[3] = shared_clone([ {}, [] ]);
{ lock(%hash); ...  }
cond_wait($scalar);
cond_timedwait($scalar, time() + 30);
cond_broadcast(@array);
cond_signal(%hash);
my $lockvar :shared;
# condition var != lock var
cond_wait($var, $lockvar);
cond_timedwait($var, time()+30, $lockvar);

DESCRIPTION

By default, variables are private to each thread, and each newly created thread gets a private copy of each existing variable. This module allows you to share variables across different threads (and pseudo-forks on Win32). It is used together with the threads module.

This module supports the sharing of the following data types only: scalars and scalar refs, arrays and array refs, and hashes and hash refs.

EXPORT

The following functions are exported by this module: share, shared_clone, is_shared, cond_wait, cond_timedwait, cond_signal and cond_broadcast

Note that if this module is imported when threads has not yet been loaded, then these functions all become no-ops. This makes it possible to write modules that will work in both threaded and non-threaded environments.

FUNCTIONS

OBJECTS

threads::shared exports a version of bless() that works on shared objects such that blessings propagate across threads.

# Create a shared 'Foo' object
my $foo :shared = shared_clone({});
bless($foo, 'Foo');
# Create a shared 'Bar' object
my $bar :shared = shared_clone({});
bless($bar, 'Bar');
# Put 'bar' inside 'foo'
$foo->{'bar'} = $bar;
# Rebless the objects via a thread
threads->create(sub {
    # Rebless the outer object
    bless($foo, 'Yin');
# Cannot directly rebless the inner object
#bless($foo->{'bar'}, 'Yang');
# Retrieve and rebless the inner object
my $obj = $foo->{'bar'};
bless($obj, 'Yang');
$foo->{'bar'} = $obj;
})->join();
print(ref($foo),          "\n");    # Prints 'Yin'
print(ref($foo->{'bar'}), "\n");    # Prints 'Yang'
print(ref($bar),          "\n");    # Also prints 'Yang'

NOTES

threads::shared is designed to disable itself silently if threads are not available. This allows you to write modules and packages that can be used in both threaded and non-threaded applications.

If you want access to threads, you must use threads before you use threads::shared. threads will emit a warning if you use it after threads::shared.

WARNINGS

BUGS AND LIMITATIONS

When share is used on arrays, hashes, array refs or hash refs, any data they contain will be lost.

my @arr = qw(foo bar baz);
share(@arr);
# @arr is now empty (i.e., == ());
# Create a 'foo' object
my $foo = { 'data' => 99 };
bless($foo, 'foo');
# Share the object
share($foo);        # Contents are now wiped out
print("ERROR: \$foo is empty\n")
    if (! exists($foo->{'data'}));

Therefore, populate such variables after declaring them as shared. (Scalar and scalar refs are not affected by this problem.)

Blessing a shared item after it has been nested in another shared item does not propagate the blessing to the shared reference:

my $foo = &share({});
my $bar = &share({});
$bar->{foo} = $foo;
bless($foo, 'baz');   # $foo is now of class 'baz',
                      # but $bar->{foo} is unblessed.

Therefore, you should bless objects before sharing them.

It is often not wise to share an object unless the class itself has been written to support sharing. For example, an object's destructor may get called multiple times, once for each thread's scope exit. Another danger is that the contents of hash-based objects will be lost due to the above mentioned limitation. See examples/class.pl (in the CPAN distribution of this module) for how to create a class that supports object sharing.

Destructors may not be called on objects if those objects still exist at global destruction time. If the destructors must be called, make sure there are no circular references and that nothing is referencing the objects, before the program ends.

Does not support splice on arrays. Does not support explicitly changing array lengths via $#array -- use push and pop instead.

Taking references to the elements of shared arrays and hashes does not autovivify the elements, and neither does slicing a shared array/hash over non-existent indices/keys autovivify the elements.

share() allows you to share($hashref->{key}) and share($arrayref->[idx]) without giving any error message. But the $hashref->{key} or $arrayref->[idx] is not shared, causing the error "lock can only be used on shared values" to occur when you attempt to lock($hashref->{key}) or lock($arrayref->[idx]) in another thread.

Using refaddr() is unreliable for testing whether or not two shared references are equivalent (e.g., when testing for circular references). Use is_shared(), instead:

use threads;
use threads::shared;
use Scalar::Util qw(refaddr);
# If ref is shared, use threads::shared's internal ID.
# Otherwise, use refaddr().
my $addr1 = is_shared($ref1) || refaddr($ref1);
my $addr2 = is_shared($ref2) || refaddr($ref2);
if ($addr1 == $addr2) {
    # The refs are equivalent
}

each() does not work properly on shared references embedded in shared structures. For example:

my %foo :shared;
$foo{'bar'} = shared_clone({'a'=>'x', 'b'=>'y', 'c'=>'z'});
while (my ($key, $val) = each(%{$foo{'bar'}})) {
    ...
}

Either of the following will work instead:

my $ref = $foo{'bar'};
while (my ($key, $val) = each(%{$ref})) {
    ...
}
foreach my $key (keys(%{$foo{'bar'}})) {
    my $val = $foo{'bar'}{$key};
    ...
}

This module supports dual-valued variables created using dualvar() from Scalar::Util. However, while $! acts like a dualvar, it is implemented as a tied SV. To propagate its value, use the follow construct, if needed:

my $errno :shared = dualvar($!,$!);

View existing bug reports at, and submit any new bugs, problems, patches, etc. to: http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=threads-shared

SEE ALSO

threads::shared Discussion Forum on CPAN: http://www.cpanforum.com/dist/threads-shared

threads, perlthrtut

http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2002/06/11/threads.html and http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2002/09/04/threads.html

Perl threads mailing list: http://lists.perl.org/list/ithreads.html

AUTHOR

Artur Bergman <sky AT crucially DOT net>

Documentation borrowed from the old Thread.pm.

CPAN version produced by Jerry D. Hedden <jdhedden AT cpan DOT org>.

LICENSE

threads::shared is released under the same license as Perl.